Soviet multiple launch rocket systems BM-13-16 "Katyusha" are one of the hallmarks of the Red Army. Domestic rocket artillery proved to be a very effective means during the war years, not only in the matter of destroying enemy targets, but also in the matter of exerting psychological pressure on the enemy. At the same time, one might get the impression that the Katyushas were a unique, exclusively Soviet type of weapon.
The history of rocket artillery began even before the outbreak of World War II. If you do not take very ancient samples from China and Korea, then we can say with confidence the most active phase of the development of MLRS came at the end of the first third of the XX century. The USA, Great Britain and Germany had their own examples of such artillery. For a number of reasons, these systems were not as widespread among the allied countries as in the USSR. So it’s impossible to say that there was nothing like this in other countries.
So, in Great Britain, the first samples of rocket artillery were created and tested back in 1934. Already in 1937, the Land Mattress rocket launcher was born. True, despite the external similarity with MLRS of other countries, the British did not create an artillery installation, but an air defense system. She fired 3-inch rockets. It's funny that already in the course of the war it turned out that you can use "Land Mattress" quite yourself for shooting at ground targets. Therefore, the installations have found wide application not on land, but at sea. They were placed on ships and used against German submarines. The only problem was that the first "Mattress" installations fired very close, and therefore did not receive wide distribution during the war. In 1944, the missiles were significantly improved, but soon the need for them disappeared, as the war ended.
The USA also had their own MLRS. The simplest and most striking example is a missile launcher based on the Sherman T34 Calliope tank. Despite the low accuracy, this system turned out to be quite effective for itself. First of all, because it was almost the only MLRS of the Second World War, which could participate in direct combat, and is not in positions in the rear to provide support. In addition, in 1944, the Americans began using the T66 24-barrel rocket launcher. The advantage of the installation was that it was fired in 2 seconds, and charged in about 10 minutes. This helped to compensate for its low accuracy.
Finally, rocket artillery was also in Germany. The most recognizable example is the Nebelwerfer 42 6-barrel 21 cm rocket launcher. In five minutes, this unit was able to fire three full volleys. For the characteristic sound of shooting, Soviet soldiers nicknamed her "Moaning Mimi". Fired MLRS mainly high-explosive shells. In addition, the Germans had a very popular rocket launcher based on the Panzerwerfer 42 Auf. Sf armored vehicle, which fired 300-mm high-explosive missiles. Finally, there was the Wurfkorper 41 system with six separate mortars attached to an armored vehicle.
Continuing the topic, read about the decline of the era of infantry weapons, or Why the Danish Madsen M1947 rifle was out of work.