When we think of dugouts, we often imagine an unprepossessing hut made of logs, almost completely buried in the ground. And they live in them, as the imagination usually draws, either our ancestors a few centuries ago, or partisans during the Great Patriotic War. However, in reality, this type of dwelling is not just forgotten, but quite the opposite - today dugouts are often built in all corners of the planet, and with the active use of advanced technologies and even alternative energy sources. The main thing is to follow the rules for the construction of these structures, which have been successfully tested by experience for centuries.
At its core, a dugout is a structure that is partially buried in the ground. True, if it is located on a hillside, then the floor may be above ground level. An obligatory element of the dugout is considered to be filling the roof with soil and placing it on top of the sod flooring, where you can grow grass or other plants. Simply put, a dugout is a pit in the ground, which is covered from above with a single or gable roof, less often a multi-slope or hipped version is practiced. Also, an artificially created cave in the hillside can fit this definition.
The history of dugouts is very long and varied. This is not surprising, because they were practiced by ancient civilizations in various parts of the world. On our territory, they are often associated either with the Old Russian period, or with dugouts of partisan detachments during the Great Patriotic War. Another period can be distinguished when these residential buildings were popular: Old Believers lived in them, who hid from persecution after the reform of Patriarch Nikon in the middle of the 17th century.
At the same time, despite such a long history, as well as significant transformations of everyday life and the life of mankind, they practically did not affect the general design features of dugouts - for the most part, they are still unchanged. In fact, only their appearance, technical content has changed, and systems have appeared that provide a comfortable existence in a dugout using modern technologies.
Therefore, there are several basic principles for the construction of dugouts, which are strictly adhered to today, as well as many centuries ago. So, for example, the most suitable place for the construction of a dwelling of this type is a relatively flat piece of land, where groundwater is located below the soil level by at least one and a half to two meters or more. Unsuccessful places for construction will be lowlands, at the foot of hills, in marshlands and coastlines, as well as in areas of permafrost.
The dugout has always been that variant of a dwelling that is always more difficult to heat and illuminate, therefore, from time immemorial, they tried to choose a place for it so that the exit from it was oriented to the south. In fairness, it should be clarified that today this rule has lost its obligation thanks to modern technologies: now the problems of lack of light and heat are solved with the help of appropriate mines or artificial lighting systems.
It's important to know: however, for the successful introduction of these technologies into the dugout, it is necessary to adhere to certain rules. So, for the device of light shafts and openings not on the side of the entrance, it is required to arrange them in advance in such a way that light penetrates there for at least one third of daylight hours.
There are also mandatory rules regarding digging the floor, as well as the construction of the walls and roof of the dugout. The first must be arranged at a level of at least half a meter above the groundwater level. In addition, modern projects today require a complex drainage system to prevent flooding. The walls of the structure, regardless of their design, must be additionally reinforced.
Often, wood, bags of earth, adobe, brick, reinforced concrete in various variations or blocks are chosen for this purpose. The roof of any modification assumes the presence of supporting surfaces. These can be pillars that support the girder - a horizontal beam on which the rafters rest. If the house is buried, then it must necessarily provide for the construction of supply and exhaust or forced ventilation.
Dugouts, with all the features of their design and original appearance, like all types of residential buildings, have their own advantages and disadvantages. Among the minuses, one can single out, for example, large volumes of earthworks: so, according to the Novate.ru editorial office, manually, without using special equipment, it will be possible to overpower a relatively small pit with an area of up to 30 square meters. Also, the time, volume and cost of construction is significantly affected by the mandatory presence of waterproofing and drainage systems, high-quality thermal insulation materials, as well as ventilation and a solid roof structure.
The advantages of dugouts still often outweigh the disadvantages - it's not for nothing that ordinary people still build them, and not schismatics or partisans. So, subject to all construction rules, you will have housing with such a level of heat and sound insulation, which will be very difficult to achieve in a ground structure. For those who want to be closer to nature and want to get more benefits from it, there is an excellent opportunity to arrange a vegetable garden literally overhead. And all because the embankment of land on the roof sometimes reaches a hundred centimeters, which will allow you to grow any crops on it without any problems.
Among the other advantages of the dugout, one can single out the relatively low cost of decorating the facade - with the standard structure of the structure, it will be necessary to finish not four walls and a roof, but only one wall, which often cannot boast of large areas. The same applies to the regular maintenance of the dugout in a suitable condition and its repair - usually the internal space, and the same external wall, need this.
All these advantages lead us to one more thing: the costs of erecting a dugout are often equal to them for the construction of a ground house. Perhaps that is why this dwelling option has not yet become an architectural atavism and continues to maintain demand, periodically appearing in different parts of the world.
Continuing the theme: during a war, partisans often make do with their own forces, and this applies not only to the construction of a dwelling - Kulibins of harsh times: what weapons did partisans and underground fighters use to fight