The 1980s were a turning point not only for the country, but also for the Soviet automobile industry. At this time, projects were created for machines capable of becoming the best in the world. The review presents a rating of the 10 most-most cars of the USSR, which few people know about.
10. NAMI-LUAZ "Proto"
In 1989, the car had every chance of becoming a production model. In addition to the traditional requirements for off-road vehicles (cross-country ability and reliability), Proto has created comfort at the level of a passenger car. The body is made in the form of a power metal frame, on which light fiberglass panels are hung. The engine from "Tavria" ensured the acceleration of the car up to 130 km / h. In general, the result is a modern compact SUV with great potential for further modernization. But this development of the Leningrad laboratory of NAMI was "hacked to death" in Moscow, the car did not go into production.
9. US 0288 "Compact"
"Compact" is an experimental vehicle created at the NAMI Institute and built in a single copy in 1988. The car had a number of technical solutions that were new to the USSR. The "Compact" was equipped with an on-board computer that controls the operation of the suspension. The engine from Tavria has been upgraded. He ran on gasoline and hydrogen. Fuel consumption - economical 5.4 liters per 100 kilometers. If "Compact" got into production, it would become a strong competitor to the popular Daewoo Matiz.
8. US "Okhta"
The Okhta project was developed in the Leningrad branch of NAMI and one copy was built in 1987. This is a 7-seater car with an amazing interior transformation capability. The middle row of seats folds down to form a table. The front seats rotate 180 degrees. This turns a simple interior into a cozy coupe. And if it was necessary to transport cargo, the seats of the second and third rows were removed, and the minivan becomes a van.
For the USSR in the late 1980s, the model looked very futuristic with its streamlined body and large glass area. The headlights were very low. And from under the bumper at high speed a spoiler was put forward, improving the aerodynamics of the car.
ZIL-4102 was developed by order of the President of the USSR Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev to replace the outdated ZIL-41041. A new Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit was bought in England for study. Also, when designing the cars, they relied on the American "school" of limousine construction and on the design of the large Volvo 760 sedans.
In 1988, two copies of the ZIL-4102 were manufactured. The appearance of the car has become more "democratic" than the previous strict style of the ZIL-41041. The novelty was radically different from its predecessor. Firstly, the car was frameless, with a monocoque body. Many exterior panels are made of fiberglass. The car received a V-shaped 8-cylinder engine with a volume of 7, 68 liters and a capacity of 315 hp. Fuel consumption on the highway was 18 … 21 liters per 100 kilometers.
The salon is very spacious, trimmed with white leather, leopard-print carpets and wood. The rich set of the presidential limousine includes power windows, a radio, an acoustic system for 10 speakers, a player for 10 CDs, an on-board computer and a speech synthesizer. Despite all the innovations, Gorbachev did not like the ZIL-4102, and the project was closed.
6. Moskvich-2139 "Arbat"
In the 1980s, the management of the Moskvich plant decided to replace the model 2140, which had long been outdated. Engineers have developed a number of projects that radically update the model range for a decade to come. Consider the most interesting models that few people know about.
Moskvich-2139 "Arbat" could become the first Soviet seven-seater minivan. Like many other models in this review, the "Arbat" has a steel body to which plastic panels are attached. The car received a convertible salon and a multifunctional steering wheel. In 1991, a working model was built, which remained a concept.
5. Moskvich-2143 "Yauza"
The Yauza concept car represented the further development of the Moskvich-2141 sedans. The model could claim the title of a car with the most stupid windows: the upper windows were rigidly fixed, and only the lower ones opened. In 1991, they collected 3 copies of "Yauza".
4. Moskvich-2144 "Istra"
Of all AZLK concepts aimed at 2000, the most realistic is the Moskvich-2144 Istra. Her body is completely aluminum. A single side door opens upwards like a supercar, giving access to a multi-new interior. Information about the speed of the vehicle was projected onto the windshield, as well as an image from a night vision device. Safety of the car was improved by belts, airbags and anti-lock brakes (ABS). The car has a climate control system, so the side windows were made non-opening, leaving only small vents.
Work on the wonderful concepts "Arbat", "Yauza" and "Istra" stopped with the collapse of the USSR, and most of the other interesting ideas remained on paper.
3. VAZ-2702 "Pony"
In the 1970s, if you needed to transport a small load, such as a TV or a washing machine, you had to drive a car with a carrying capacity of over 3 tons. GAZ-53 and ZIL-130 were the most popular delivery vehicles for various services. This caused unnecessary fuel consumption and worsened the environmental situation, especially in Moscow.
Then at VAZ they designed a compact electric delivery vehicle VAZ-2702 "Pony". The first sample went in 1984. It was made of aluminum, which greatly lightened the body. But at the same time, this became the main problem of the car: it was not strong and reliable enough. Therefore, despite an interesting and promising concept, "Pony" has not received further development. So the country lost the first serial electric car.
2. ZIL-118 "Youth"
The Yunost bus was developed in the early 1960s on the basis of the ZIL-111 executive limousine. His concept was unique for those years. The main difference between Yunost and other buses is the increased level of comfort and smooth running. The car drove almost like a passenger car. And it is not surprising, because the engine from the ZIL-130 truck was installed on "Yunost", the power of which was enough in abundance.
Buses were assembled several units a year on special orders from television, the KGB, and as ambulances for especially important patients. In total, from 1963 to 1994, the plant produced 93 vehicles.
1. MAZ-2000 "Perestroika"
In 1988, at the Paris Motor Show, a noisy debut of a unique Soviet truck, MAZ-2000, took place. It was an attempt by the engineers of the Minsk Automobile Plant to show how they imagine a long-range truck of 2000. According to the concept called "Perestroika", the tractor is divided into two parts. The cab module is rigidly attached to the van. It has a flat floor, a high roof, and a large panoramic glass. The cabin is equipped with air conditioning, TV, radio tape recorder, table, refrigerator, electric stove, VHF radio station and even a rear-view camera. And that's all in an 80s truck!
The traction module rotates relative to the cab using hydraulic cylinders. The concept was supplied with a 6-cylinder diesel engine from MAN with a capacity of 290 hp. Thanks to improved aerodynamics, the car could accelerate to 120 km / h. Suspension on all wheels - independent, on air bellows. The brakes are equipped with an anti-lock braking system.
engineers were actively working on the machine, two working copies were built. We even worked out a project on how to combine several trailers in a row, forming a road train with a carrying capacity of 80 tons. But with the collapse of the country, the project was closed, and the developments and patents were sold to Western firms.
Unfortunately, concept cars rarely made it into production in the Soviet Union. But the most exotic still remain cool sports cars that not everyone knows.