Many historical architectural monuments of the capital of Russia have taken a worthy place on tourist maps and in guidebooks, although not all sights are so "promoted" that even native Muscovites would recognize them. On the streets of the city, on the outskirts and even in the industrial zone, you can see unique structures that have not only original forms, but also an exciting history of existence, which only a narrow circle of art critics or those who live in the immediate vicinity know about.
1. "House of Three Epochs" - an old building in Vishnyakovsky lane
An ordinary-looking house, popularly called "Stalin", is not as simple as it seems at first glance. If you look closely, you immediately notice that each block of three floors is decorated in a different style. And this is not an architect's whim and his design idea, as it turned out, house number 23 in Vishnyakovsky lane was built in different centuries. The first block of three floors was built for the merchant Lukutin in the 18th century in the classicism style.
At the beginning of the last century (1910), the architect P. Ushakov in the neoclassicism style designed another floor in order to turn the estate into a “tenement house”. Under Soviet rule, in 1930 and 1980, two and three more residential levels were completed, respectively. Due to the constant "growth", the facade of the house has a different appearance, this is especially noticeable on the corner balconies after the 7th floor and the pronounced line of the superstructure between the 5th and 6th floors.
2. House-sail on the street Grizodubova №2
A giant "sail", "drop, wave, whale, palette, snail and even an ear" - as soon as they do not call the original form of a multi-storey building, which had to be built in a cascade because of the new buildings that appeared before it. This unique building was developed by a team of architects led by A. Bokov and B. Uborevich-Borovsky, as the longest building in Europe, but life has made its own adjustments.
Although such changes had a positive effect on its appearance, at the same time, it also significantly complicated the task for the design engineers, who had to sweat a lot to strengthen the arched structure and correctly bring communications. However, their efforts did not go unnoticed, and in 2008 the original building at 2 Grizodubova Street received the House of the Year award.
3. House of Mosselprom in Kalashny lane №2 / 10
A striking example of Soviet constructivism for a hundred years has been the building that received the strange name "House of Mosselprom". In 1920, after its construction, it was considered the tallest building in the capital. A whole galaxy of architects worked on its development (for some reason at different times), among whom were the academician of architecture - Nikolai Strukov, architects David Kogan and Arthur Loleit, as well as engineer Vladimir Tsvetaev (a close relative of Marina Tsvetaeva). Avant-garde artists A. Rodchenko and V. Stepanova were involved in the impressive decorative panel, which vividly advertised the products of Mosselprom, but the most interesting thing is that the slogan “Nowhere but in Mosselprom!” written by Vladimir Mayakovsky himself.
Interesting fact: It is unlikely that any of the modern townspeople will be able to decipher such an unusual name, invented a hundred years ago, so I would like to clarify what it means. Mosselprom is the Moscow provincial association of enterprises for the processing of agricultural products, organized in 1922 and existed until 1937. In fact, it is a self-supporting commercial and industrial company (trust), which united the main state factories and large food processing plants. Immediately after the eccentric house was put into operation, there was indeed a huge flour warehouse (in the basement), and the main premises were occupied by the management structures of the association and the accounting department. And on the uppermost floors, the employees of the local confectionery factory lived.
But by the end of the 30s. such an extraordinary house came to the attention of the highest ranks of the People's Commissariat of Defense, who found another application for it. Since then, it has been transferred completely to the housing stock, in which only the leaders of the highest echelon - the generals and heroes of the Soviet Union - received apartments. Since the second half of the last century, civilians have already lived in it, but they also have special services to the Fatherland. Today, in addition to residential residences, the Mosselprom building houses one of the faculties of the Russian Institute of Theater Arts.
4. The mansion of Arseny Morozov on Vozdvizhenka street No. 16
The only house in Moscow that combines elements of eclecticism, Art Nouveau and bright exotic stylization of the Moorish style in its appearance was created in 1895-1899. architect Viktor Mazyrin. Such an unexpected object, which at one time became famous throughout the capital because of its "intricate and stupid appearance", was created by order of a representative of a powerful trading dynasty - Arseny Morozov. The eccentric offspring of Varvara Morozova was not only a mot, but also an enthusiastic person who, after a trip to Spain and a trip to Portugal, was so fired up with the idea of creating his own house, similar to the Pena Palace in Sintra (Portugal), that upon arriving home he immediately began construction.
The unique flavor of the neo-Moorish style in combination with carved openwork cornices and an attic, twisted columns, and shell-shaped stucco on the towers of the portal of the main entrance create a breathtaking spectacle that in those days no one accepted and could not appreciate. Rumor has it that Arseny's tough and sharp-tongued mother, when she came to see the finished mansion, said in her hearts: “I used to know that you were a fool, now all Moscow will know!”
Whatever glory goes about this house, and no matter how much it changes owners, the mansion remains the pearl of the architecture of the huge capital to this day. According to the author of Novate.ru, at the moment it is the Reception House of the Government of the Russian Federation.
5. Catholic Church "Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary" on Malaya Gruzinskaya Street # 27/13
In the Middle Ages, the Gothic structures of Moscow architecture differed significantly from the pompous European buildings. This is especially noticeable in the religious sites created in large European cities. In fairness, I must say that one impressive structure with Gothic towers, repeating the outlines of the Prague or Cologne cathedrals of the Middle Ages, can be seen on Malaya Gruzinskaya in Moscow.
True, the Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, impressive in its size and Gothic forms, was built not in the Middle Ages, but a little more than a hundred years ago - in 1901-1911. During this period, there was a real boom in construction in the style of historical eclecticism, and against the background of the Emperor's Decree "On Strengthening the Foundations of Tolerance," the construction of a spectacular church began, about which the Catholic community of Moscow province had repeatedly submitted a petition. The most pompous and largest church in Russia was designed by the famous architect, academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts - Foma Bogdanovich-Dvorzhetsky.
Naturally, the first Catholic church was built in accordance with all the rules of classical European architecture of the Middle Ages, so it is not surprising that many connoisseurs resemble the Cathedral Church of St. Peter in Westminster, included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, better known as Westminster Abbey.
If these masterpieces of Moscow architecture are little recognized in wide circles, then the works of the post-Soviet period are known to everyone, because during their construction it was necessary to overcome considerable opposition and rejection of both critics and citizens. New objects, built in the "Luzhkov style of architecture", cause, along with criticism, genuine interest, because such structures leave few people indifferent.