Everyone from childhood knows that cavalrymen in an era not yet so distant from us wielded checkers. Or sabers? Or both? It's time to figure out whether there is some kind of principled sacristy between these types of weapons, and what it consists of. In the end, both types of bladed weapons are really similar, like two brothers.
The difference between a saber and a saber is about the same as the difference between a sword and a rapier - speculative. Or, more precisely, there is none, at least in fact. Let's remind that here the whole difference lies in the Russian language. In most European languages, "sword" is a synonym for the word "sword". Actually, this name comes from the Italian word "Spada", which means just this very "sword". And the word “rapier” comes from the Spanish “espada ropera”, which literally means “sword in costume”. Thus, both the sword and the rapier are one and the same type of weapon, with the only difference that in Russian it is customary to mean a ceremonial, not military weaponry.
The situation is similar with the saber and saber. The whole difference (which doesn't really exist) lies in the name. The name "saber" in Russian comes from the Hungarian word "szabni" - "cut, cut". And the name "shashka" in Russian was formed from the Kabardino-Circassian "sa'shkho" - "long knife". The names come from different languages, but mean the same weapon.
Some will say that a checker is different from a saber at least outwardly. However, look carefully for yourself? What is this difference? In bend profile and hilt? However, if we take all the same "swords and rapiers", then we can observe that the length and thickness of the blade, the type of hilt (or even its absence) can vary greatly. At the same time, the sword is not a separate type of weapon, but simply a light version of the medieval sword, which is much more familiar to us all. At the same time, what remains the main thing in the sword is the presence of a long blade sharpened on both sides.
The same is with the saber and saber. These are not two types of weapons, but one. Let the hilts differ, albeit the shape of the blade is slightly different: the main, immanent quality of this family of weapons is the curved, sharpened, on the one hand, blade. Sometimes the saber has one and a half sharpening, but this does not affect its functions in any way.
In fact, this is all a matter of classification and assessment approach. By and large, all bladed weapons are divided according to blade length and sharpening format. Armament, in which the blade is sharpened on both sides, is referred to as swords. Weapons with a blade sharpened on one side are classified as sabers. These are two main features that are somehow inherent in each type of cold bladed weapon. Only knives stand apart. Even a dagger is, in fact, considered a short sword.
And the difference in the hilt, in the design, in the force of the blade bending never changes the essence of the weapon functionally. For example, a katana will always remain a saber, as it is a single-edged blade weapon. And its size, hilt and design do not have any meaning in the general classification, tk. the function of this weapon, in contrast to the shape of the sharpening of the blade, does not change all this.
Elements such as the hilt are classified separately. Viking era swords are a prime example. This is a large group of bladed edged weapons, which, depending on the century of production, have different hilts, production technologies and blade shapes. But despite all the variety of colors, shapes and styles - the sword remains a sword.
Thus, the entire classification of weapons (like any other thing) is based on the search for qualities that are inherent in the largest groups. There are always exceptions. For example, broadswords. In general, these are swords. Even the word itself, the Hungarian word "pallos" means "sword". Nevertheless, there are specimens of broadswords that are not swords, but sabers. However, of the two large families, the sword and saber, broadswords are distinguished by such a common quality as the presence of a slight extension towards the end of the blade.
And if you want even more interesting things, then you can read about what is the difference between two so similar bladeslike the already mentioned epee and rapier.