Tank cars appeared in connection with the rapid development of the oil industry in Russia at the end of the nineteenth century. The need for them in our country arose also because Baku kerosene had to be transported from the docks on the Volga to other regions.
The body had the form of a cylindrical boiler with a dome on top, and a pipe below with a shut-off mechanism for draining, which was located in a horizontal position.
Cisterns were filled from massive tanks through a hatch in the cap with the help of an oil tank. The hatch was closed with a special cover. As for the hood, it served as another container in case the volume of the contents increased due to the higher temperature.
1. The history of the emergence of tanks on railways in Russia
The first such cars date back to 1863. They were made abroad. The workshops of the Gryaze-Tsaritsyn railway and the Kovrov workshops began to create their own tanks in the country in 1872. The first designs had two axles and a boiler, which was 1,360 - 1,500 millimeters in diameter. Its length was from 5,000 millimeters.
- the volume of the boiler in the cylindrical part is eight to ten cubic meters. m;
The supports for the transverse boiler were made of wood. They had cutouts corresponding to the diameter of the structure. They had no drain pipes, which is due to the incorrect operation of the constipation and the resulting leak. Accordingly, there was a risk of fire. During the loading of these structures with gasoline, it was pumped out through the bell with the help of pumps. In the period preceding the First World War, the carrying capacity of some tanks was increased to sixteen and a half tons. For this, a boiler was built on top. Its volume also increased to eighteen to nineteen cubic meters.
The tanks for the transportation of alcohol had the form of a standard design, the capacity of which was 15.3 cubic meters. She was inside a brake covered wagon. On the roof of this car there was a superstructure with a hatch. Everything necessary was poured through it. As for the tanks of other types, they were, but in limited quantities. There were minimal differences from conventional cars in terms of the running gear. The only difference is in the design and shape of the tanks.
2. Economic component
In this sense, tanks have always had one feature - they had no return cargo at all. If the cargo was sent to one point, then the train always went back empty. And this is very unprofitable. Of course, they tried to resolve this issue. They created wagons that have a dual purpose - platform cisterns.
The boiler was a parallelepiped with a semi-cylindrical outgrowth riveted from below. It was located between the beams of the longitudinal type. In the corner there was an expansion cap and a so-called brake booth. At the top was a platform with rather low sides around the perimeter.
But in general, this option was not a solution to the problem. The composition was gradually modernized. Tanks began to be produced with four and eight axles. Naturally, the carrying capacity increased. But the empty issue has not been resolved to this day.
Oil pipelines made it possible to radically solve the problem. But another problem arose - the railway lines began to fade away rapidly.
It will be no less interesting and useful to find out why does the train back up a little before starting to move.