Why Soviet TVs were made on 12 channels, and two programs were broadcast

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Why Soviet TVs were made on 12 channels, and two programs were broadcast
Why Soviet TVs were made on 12 channels, and two programs were broadcast
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Since the advent of TVs, they have been the standard single channel. That is, only one TV program was broadcast, and even the switch was not provided. After a while, in 1952, three-channel television sets of the Sever brand with a corresponding switch appeared. Three years later, Avangard-55 with five channels began to be produced. For the first time in 1957, on the new Rubin-101 model, manufacturers installed switching devices on as many as twelve TV channels. But what is most interesting, as before, only one TV program was broadcast.

The first televisions broadcast only one channel
The first televisions broadcast only one channel

In 1965, a second TV program became available, but only Muscovites could enjoy watching it. When it appeared in settlements more remote from the center, people decided that soon twelve channels would be able to watch. But as it turned out, they rejoiced early, since they were clearly not made for this purpose.

Why was a multichannel switch needed?

The first television towers could transmit a signal over a short distance
The first television towers could transmit a signal over a short distance

Initially, at the dawn of television, a single copy of TV towers were installed in large cities. They were able to transmit a signal to an area of 30-70 kilometers and did not interfere with anyone.

To cover a larger area, it was necessary to install additional TV towers
To cover a larger area, it was necessary to install additional TV towers

But for a big city with a suburban area, such a TV tower is not enough. To cover the entire territory, additional similar structures were needed. In this regard, problems arose. Noise is generated when broadcasting a TV program from all existing towers on the same channel. To avoid this phenomenon, programs from neighboring structures are broadcast not on one, but on different channels.

A total of twelve channels were made, which was enough to broadcast two TV programs. To expand broadcasting, it became necessary to use frequencies in the decimeter range (UHF).

There is an assumption that 12 channels were chosen by analogy with the usual 12 hour system
There is an assumption that 12 channels were chosen by analogy with the usual 12 hour system

For what reasons, the choice fell on the number of channels in the amount of twelve is not known for certain. But it can be assumed that the engineers were based on the twelve-hour system familiar to everyone.

The TV channel system was developed by the IBU (International Broadcasting Union). In 1950 it developed into an organization called the EBU. The Soviet Union, along with other 25 states, left it in 1946, after which they created their own organization - OIRT.

The PTC of Soviet-made tube TVs looks like a plate with a side wheel
The PTC of Soviet-made tube TVs looks like a plate with a side wheel

The PTK (TV channel switch) of Soviet-made tube TVs looks like a plate with a side wheel. It is the spring that is responsible for one step of turning the drum.

On semiconductor models, the switch was a push-button SVP
On semiconductor models, the switch was a push-button SVP

A push-button SVP was installed on semiconductor models, which served as a switch. There were only six buttons. When these televisions began to be made, four television programs were broadcast. Two buttons were for the future. The fact that it would be possible to watch 150 or more channels was not even dreamed of at that time.

Continuing the topic read, what kind of pictures with girls Soviet guitars were decorated with, and why they were popular.

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