How to correctly say in relation to the place of emergency exit from public transport or a building: "emergency exit" or is it "emergency exit"? The second option is more familiar to a modern person, however, for many decades, over and over again on warning signs, an inscription from the first option appears that hurts the eye and ear. Why is it so? Are those who write them not very literate? Or maybe everyone else does not know something about the rules?
1. What do linguists and dictionaries say?
If you do not find fault, then both so and so right. However, in the context of the modern Russian language, it would be more accurate to use the variant with the word "spare". The fact is that adjectives with the endings "-y" and "-y" as "reserve" are more characteristic of the Russian language of the 19th century. The word "spare" began to be used in the Russian literary language only at the beginning of the 20th century. Officially, the adjectives on "-oi" have come into use after 1920s years. Then the Soviet linguists recognized that it would be correct to say "emergency exit" and not "emergency exit". At the same time, the obsolete form of the word from the spoken language did not go anywhere at the click of the fingers, turning into what linguists call "Speech cliché".
Speech cliches in colloquial speech are extremely persistent. When in the USSR they began to make stencils for printing inscriptions for emergency exits, there were still many people in the country who were accustomed to speaking and writing in the old way. Thanks to this, the "spare" form has not been completely displaced from everyday use until now. Often, an outdated word can be found in combination with "entrance", "exit", "path", etc.
2. Alternative version: error or typo
There are also several alternative versions that sound quite plausible. At the same time, it is important to emphasize that modern linguistic scientists studying their native language do not share such points of view to a greater extent. However, the first version boils down to the fact that the typography simply made a typo (or mistake) in the ending. At first, no one noticed her, and when the form went into circulation, it was too late to change something. Gradually, there were so many incorrect inscriptions and tablets throughout this country that they formed a new speech cliché.
3. Alternative version: Ukrainian language
There is another popular version describing a possible error. The fact is that in the Ukrainian language the inscription in question looks like a "spare view". There is an opinion that during the translation into Russian there was also a mistake in the stencil for LAZ buses (Lviv), after which the "wrong" form was fixed in use.
4. Alternative version: Hungarian buses
The most romantic legend associated with the words "spare" and "spare". As in the two previous ones, it also deals with an error in the Russian word. However, it was allegedly admitted by Hungarian workers who produced the well-known Ikarus buses. True, this version does not explain in any way the fact that the word "spare" really existed in the Russian language before the appearance of imported equipment.
If you want to learn even more interesting things about the Russian language, then you should read about when in Russia they were called "mymrs", as well as the true meanings of several of the curse words nowadays.